Grammar Lesson F [B1+]


CONJUNCTIONS link words and phrases together. There are different types of conjunctions.


Co-ordinating conjunctions

  • and, but, however, or, so, yet

These join list of items or clauses that can also stand alone and still make sense.



  • I work with children and athletes. (I work with children. I work with athletes.)


  • Emergency medicine is very stressful but very rewarding when you can save a life. (Emergency medicine is very stressful. Emergency medicine is very rewarding when you can save a life)


  • I grew up around healthcare professionals, so I have a lot of insight about what the field is like. (I grew up around healthcare professionals. I have a lot of insight about what the field is like.)

Subordinating conjunctions 

  • although, because, as, once, since, while, when, if


These introduce one idea (the dependent clause) that depends on another main idea (the main clause) and which explains the main idea.



  • If I get a job in the teaching hospital, I will apply to do my specialty there. (“Applying to do a specialty” depends on “getting a job at the teaching hospital”.)


  • Since I am in a residency programme, I can apply for the study fellowship. (“Applying for a study fellowship” depends of “being in a residency programme”.)


  • I became a physiotherapist because I saw how much they helped my brother to walk again after his car accident. (“Becoming a physiotherapist” is the result of “the therapist helping the brother to walk again)


  • Once I finish my basic training, I plan to work with professional athletes. (“working with professional athletes” depends on “finishing basic training”.)

Correlative conjunctions

  • “both…and”         “either…or”         “neither…nor”            “not only…but also”

The two parts of a correlative conjunction always appear together.



  • Both my grandmother and my mother are doctors.


  • I want to specialise in either anesthetics or cardiology.


  • Neither psychiatry nor internal medicine interests me.


  • He is not only a children’s physiotherapist, but also the therapist for the national basketball team.


Practice repeating aloud each example sentence above, running the words together until they flow smoothly and naturally.


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