INTRODUCTION TO CONJUNCTIONS – linking ideas
CONJUNCTIONS link words and phrases together. There are different types of conjunctions.
- and, but, however, or, so, yet
These join list of items or clauses that can also stand alone and still make sense.
- I work with children and athletes. (I work with children. I work with athletes.)
- Emergency medicine is very stressful but very rewarding when you can save a life. (Emergency medicine is very stressful. Emergency medicine is very rewarding when you can save a life)
- I grew up around healthcare professionals, so I have a lot of insight about what the field is like. (I grew up around healthcare professionals. I have a lot of insight about what the field is like.)
- although, because, as, once, since, while, when, if
These introduce one idea (the dependent clause) that depends on another main idea (the main clause) and which explains the main idea.
- If I get a job in the teaching hospital, I will apply to do my specialty there. (“Applying to do a specialty” depends on “getting a job at the teaching hospital”.)
- Since I am in a residency programme, I can apply for the study fellowship. (“Applying for a study fellowship” depends of “being in a residency programme”.)
- I became a physiotherapist because I saw how much they helped my brother to walk again after his car accident. (“Becoming a physiotherapist” is the result of “the therapist helping the brother to walk again)
- Once I finish my basic training, I plan to work with professional athletes. (“working with professional athletes” depends on “finishing basic training”.)
- “both…and” “either…or” “neither…nor” “not only…but also”
The two parts of a correlative conjunction always appear together.
- Both my grandmother and my mother are doctors.
- I want to specialise in either anesthetics or cardiology.
- Neither psychiatry nor internal medicine interests me.
- He is not only a children’s physiotherapist, but also the therapist for the national basketball team.
SPEAKING PRACTICE – VERY IMPORTANT SPEAKING PATTERNS
Practice repeating aloud each example sentence above, running the words together until they flow smoothly and naturally.